Guide des additifs pour colorants alimentaires, y compris les dangers liés aux colorants alimentaires

Guide des additifs pour colorants alimentaires, y compris les dangers liés aux colorants alimentaires

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Use Control Find and type in "asthma" or "congestion" or "breathing"

Colors   (E100-E181)






orange-yellow color; derived from the root of the curcuma (turmeric) plant, but can be artificially produced; used in cheese, margarine, baked sweets and fish fingers


Riboflavin, Riboflavin-5'-phosphate

'vitamin B2' and color; occurs naturally in green veggies, eggs, milk, liver and kidney; used in margarine and cheese



FD&C Yellow No.5; known to provoke asthma attacks (though the US FDA** do not recognize this) and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA** estimates 1:10 000); also linked to thyroid tumors, chromosomal damage, urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to aspirin sensitivity; used to color drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack foods, canned fish, packaged soups; banned in Norway and Austria


Quinoline Yellow

FD&C Yellow No.10; used in lipsticks hair products, colognes; also in a wide range of medications; cause dermatitis; banned in Australia, USA and Norway


Yellow 7G

yellow color; the HACSG* recommends to avoid it; people who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical products are soft drinks; banned in Australia and USA


Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S

FD&C Yellow No.6; used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks and canned fish; synthetic; also in many medications including Berocca, Polaramine, Ventolin syrup; side effects are urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose), nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, kidney tumors, chromosomal damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food; seen increased incidence of tumors in animals; banned in Norway


Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmines

red color; made from insects; rarely used; the HASCG* recommends to avoid it


Azorubine, Carmoisine

red color; coal tar derivative; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; typical products are confectionary, marzipan, jelly crystals; banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway



FD&C Red No.2; derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name; used in cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals; can provoke asthma, eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer; banned in the USA, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries


Ponceau 4R, Cochineal Red A

FD&C Red No.4; synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; banned in USA & Norway



FD&C Red No.3; red color used in cherries, canned fruit, custard mix, sweets, bakery, snack foods; can cause sensitivity to light; can increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990; banned in January 1990, but not recalled by the US FDA**; banned in Norway


Red 2G

banned in Australia and many other places except UK


Allura red AC

FD&C Red No.40; Orange-red color used in sweets, drinks and condiments, medications and cosmetics, synthetic; introduced in the early eighties to replace amaranth which was considered not safe due to conflicting test results; allura red has also been connected with cancer in mice; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Norway


Patent blue V

banned in Australia, USA and Norway


Indigotine, Indigo carmine

FD&C Blue No.2, commonly added to tablets and capsules; also used in ice cream, sweets, baked goods, confectionery, biscuits, synthetic coal tar derivative; may cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions. banned in Norway


Brilliant blue FCF

FD&C Blue Dye No.1; used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually occurring as aluminum lake (solution) or ammonium salt; banned in Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Norway


Chlorophylis, Chlorophyllins

green color occurs naturally in all plants; used for dyeing waxes and oils, used in medicines and cosmetics


Copper complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins

olive color, no adverse effects are known


Green S

green color; synthetic coal tar derivative; used in canned peas, mint jelly and sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes; banned inSweden, USA and Norway


Plain caramel

dark brown color made from sucrose; the HACSG* recommends to avoiding it. Used in oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles


Caustic sulphite caramel

see E150(a)


Ammonia caramel

see E150(a)


Sulphite ammonia caramel

see E150(a)


Brilliant Black BN, Black PN

color; coal tar derivative; used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes; banned in Denmark, Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway


Vegetable carbon

black colour, charcoal pigment; used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice; only the vegetable derived variety permitted in Australia, banned in the United States


Brown FK

banned in USA


Brown HT (Chocolate)

brown color, coal tar and azo dye; used in chocolate cake mixes; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce skin sensitivity; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway


Carotene, alpha-, beta-, gamma-

orange-yellow colour; human body converts it to 'Vitamin A' in the liver, found in carrots and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables


Annatto (Arnatto, Annato), bixin, norbixin

red color; derived from a tree (Bixa orellana); used as a body paint, fabric dye, digestive aid and expectorant; used to dye cheese, butter, margarine, cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes; known to cause urticaria (nettle rash), the HACSG* recommends to avoid it


Paprika extract, capsanthin, capsorubin

avoid it, banned in some countries



red coloured carotenoid found in tomatoes and pink grapefruit, can cause decreasing risk of cancer


Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30)

orange color, no adverse effects are known


Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid (C 30)

orange color, no adverse effects are known


Xanthophylls - Lutein

yellow color derived from plants, naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg yolks


Xanthophylls - Canthaxanthin

yellow color possibly derived from animal sources (retinol); the pigment is found in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers


Beetroot Red, Betanin

purple color derived from beets; no adverse effects are known



violet color matter of flowers and plants; seems safe


Calcium carbonate

mineral salt, used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders; may be derived from rock mineral or animal bones; sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm canned fruit and veg.; toxic at 'high doses'


Titanium dioxide

white color used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways; no adverse effects are known


Iron oxides and hydroxides

black, yellow, red color used in salmon and shrimp pastes; toxic at 'high doses'



avoid it, banned in some countries



avoid it, banned in some countries



avoid it, banned in some countries


Latolrubine BK

avoid it, banned in some countries


Tannic acid, tannins

clarifying agent in alcohol; derived from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees; occurs naturally in tea

This is a fairly old list. Get more up to date via Google or PubMed.

* Hyperactive Children Support Group (HACSG)
** Food and Drug Administration
"@" Additives which probably or definitely animal (mostly pig) derivation

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